Castro Lima Verónica, Richard B. Rosen and Michel Farah
International Journal of Retina and Vitreous, 2016, 2:19.
Lutein and Zeaxanthin, two carotenoid pigments of the xanthophyll subclass, are present in high concentrations in the retina, especially in the macula. These pigments work as protective filters against blue light as well as antioxidants and free radical scavengers, reducing oxidative damage related to stress. Many studies have suggested that lutein and zeaxanthin can reduce the risk of various eye diseases, especially in Age-related Macular Degeneration. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that these pigments can protect eye cells from oxidative damage diseases. Recent research has shown that in addition to the traditional mechanism, lutein and zeaxanthin can influence cell function and viability through signal mechanisms or transcription factors; for example, they can affect the immune and inflammation response and have anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic properties. This review covers the basic aspects and results of recent studies regarding the effects of lutein, zeaxanthin and other carotenoids, such as meso zeaxanthin, in both clinical and experimental ocular models and in the management of various ocular diseases using these molecules.